Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is emerging as a discipline that is increasingly being applied beyond the field of engineering. In fact, a variety of domains ranging from healthcare to the social sciences and the humanities are now adapting M&S as a viable method of scientific inquiry. In this presentation, we make the case that M&S is in fact its own discipline and present fundamental problems that belong specifically to the M&S domain. We present an overview of M&S thinking along with practical real word examples and discuss how M&S approaches can be applied in different context. Our main objective is to demonstrate that theories, methods and techniques used in M&S are generally applicable to other domains.